Anatomy of the Spine and Peripheral Nervous System. The spinal cord is an extension of the central nervous system (CNS), which consists of the brain and spinal cord.
What is the classification of the vertebrae?
The vertebrae are divided into three regions: cervical C1–C7 vertebrae, thoracic T1–T12 vertebrae, and lumbar L1–L5 vertebrae. The vertebral column is curved, with two primary curvatures (thoracic and sacrococcygeal curves) and two secondary curvatures (cervical and lumbar curves).
What is the vertebral body of the spine?
The vertebral body is the main portion of the vertebra. It bears about 80 percent of the load while standing and provides an attachment for the discs between the vertebrae. The front or anterior section of the vertebral body protects the spinal cord and nerve roots.
Is the spinal cord part of skeletal system?
The axial skeleton contains 80 bones, including the skull, spine and rib cage. It forms the central structure of the skeleton, with the function of protecting the brain, spinal cord, heart and lungs.
What part of the spine controls the heart?
Thoracic (mid back) – the main function of the thoracic spine is to hold the rib cage and protect the heart and lungs. The twelve thoracic vertebrae are numbered T1 to T12.
What are the 5 types of vertebrae?
As mentioned above, our vertebrae are numbered and divided into five regions: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, and coccyx.
What are the 5 areas of the spine?
The spine is composed of 33 bones, called vertebrae, divided into five sections: the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine sections, and the sacrum and coccyx bones. The cervical section of the spine is made up of the top seven vertebrae in the spine, C1 to C7, and is connected to the base of the skull.
What is the difference between vertebrae and spinal cord?
The spine is made up of a column of bones called vertebrae (spinal column). The spinal cord, a long, fragile structure contained in the spinal canal which runs through the centre of the spine, is protected by the vertebrae.
What makes up a vertebral body?
Vertebral body is the thick oval segment of bone forming the front of the vertebra also called the centrum. The cavity of the vertebral body consists of cancellous bone tissue and is encircled by a protective layer of compact bone.
What is the function of the vertebral body?
The major function of the vertebral column is protection of the spinal cord; it also provides stiffening for the body and attachment for the pectoral and pelvic girdles and many muscles. In humans an additional function is to transmit body weight in walking and standing.
What causes spine pain?
Upper and middle back pain may be caused by: Overuse, muscle strain, or injury to the muscles, ligaments, and discs that support your spine. Poor posture. Pressure on the spinal nerves from certain problems, such as a herniated disc.
What are the two kinds of muscles?
Different types of muscle
- Skeletal muscle – the specialised tissue that is attached to bones and allows movement. …
- Smooth muscle – located in various internal structures including the digestive tract, uterus and blood vessels such as arteries. …
- Cardiac muscle – the muscle specific to the heart.
What part of the skeletal system protects spinal cord?
Vertebrae surround and protect the spinal cord and bones of the rib cage help protect the heart and lungs of the thorax. Bones work together with muscles as simple mechanical lever systems to produce body movement.