Secondary osteoporosis is less common than primary osteoporosis. It may be suspected in patients who present with a fragility fracture despite having no risk factors for osteoporosis. In addition, secondary osteoporosis should be considered if the bone density Z-score is –2.5 or less.
What is considered secondary osteoporosis?
Secondary osteoporosis is defined as low bone mass with microarchitectural alterations in bone leading to fragility fractures in the presence of an underlying disease or medication (1). Secondary osteoporosis can be present in pre- and post-menopausal women and in men.
What is the most common cause of secondary osteoporosis?
The most common causes of secondary osteoporosis include: Endocrinopathies (hyperthyroidism, hypogonadism, hypopituitarism, primary hyperparathyroidism, diabetes mellitus, eating disorders, growth hormone deficiency and acromegaly)
When should you suspect osteoporosis?
Any patient over the age of 50 who presents to an orthopaedist with a hip, distal radius, or vertebral compression fracture should be evaluated for the presence of osteoporosis. The same diagnostic approach should be taken to patients suspected of having osteoporosis whether or not they have sustained a fracture.
Can secondary osteoporosis be cured?
Much like primary osteoporosis, there is no cure for secondary osteoporosis. Treatment for secondary osteoporosis can be a little more complex and depends on the underlying condition. Treatment of secondary osteoporosis is also aimed at preventing bone loss, fractures, and disability as well as controlling pain.
How do you rule out secondary causes of osteoporosis?
In any patient suspected of having secondary osteoporosis, most experts recommend evaluation of bone and mineral metabolism with blood tests for calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, liver and kidney function, full blood count and thyroid-stimulating hormone.
What is secondary prevention of osteoporosis?
Emphasis of the primary prevention is, besides a sufficient calcium intake, to omit risk factors; with secondary prevention the use of medical treatments such as estrogens/gestagens, bisphosphonates, and recently also SERMs is applied. The tertiary prevention tries mostly to reduce the femur fractures.
What is early onset osteoporosis?
Bones are thickest and strongest in your early adult life until your late 20s. You gradually start losing bone from around the age of 35. This happens to everyone, but some people develop osteoporosis and lose bone much faster than normal. This means they’re at greater risk of a fracture.
What is the difference between Type 1 and Type 2 osteoporosis?
Postmenopausal osteoporosis (type 1) occurs in women within 15–20 years after menopause and is thought to result from factors related to or exacerbated by estrogen deficiency. Age-related osteoporosis (type 2) occurs in men and women over 75 years of age and may be more directly related to the aging process.
What medications are commonly associated with secondary osteoporosis?
The medications most commonly associated with osteoporosis include phenytoin, phenobarbital, carbamazepine, and primidone. These antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are all potent inducers of CYP-450 isoenzymes.
What are the first signs of osteoporosis?
- Back pain, caused by a fractured or collapsed vertebra.
- Loss of height over time.
- A stooped posture.
- A bone that breaks much more easily than expected.
How should you sleep with osteoporosis?
What’s the best sleeping position for osteoporosis of the spine? Sleeping on your side or back are both viewed as suitable for those with brittle bones. You may want to avoid sleeping on your stomach because it can cause too much of an arch in the back, which is both unhealthy and uncomfortable.
How do you treat osteoporosis without medication?
They include walking, hiking, jogging, climbing stairs, playing tennis, yoga and dancing. Resistance exercises – such as lifting weights – can also strengthen bones.” Kamhi lays it all out in an article she wrote for Natural Medical Journal.