At which level of the spine is the greatest degree of rotation possible?

Lateral flexion is free at the atlanto-occipital joint, cervical and lumbar spine, but less free in the thoracic spine. Rotation is greatest at the specialized atlantoaxial articulations, and to a lesser degree in the cervical and lumbar spine.

What vertebrae have the greatest range of motion?

The seven cervical vertebrae are numbered C1 to C7. The neck has the greatest range of motion because of two specialized vertebrae that connect to the skull. The first vertebra (C1) is the ring-shaped atlas that connects directly to the skull. This joint allows for the nodding or “yes” motion of the head.

Which motion has the greatest degree of freedom in the lumbar region?

Spinal column has the ability to perform movements in all planes, so has 3 degrees of freedom. The greatest degree of freedom exists in the cervical and lumbar.

Where does rotation occur in vertebral column?

Rotation is greatest at the specialised atlantoaxial articulations, and to a lesser degree in the cervical and lumbar spine.

Is there a disc between C1 and C2?

There is no intervertebral disc between C1 and C2, which is unique in the spine.

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How much rotation comes from C1 C2?

The normal ranges of rotation of C1 on C2 are reported to be 50° to each side.

What is normal neck mobility?

In neck flexion, a normal range of motion is 40 to 80 degrees, which is measured by a device called a goniometer. This shows how far you can move your neck without experiencing pain, discomfort, or resistance.

Why is rotation limited in the lumbar spine?

Because of the more sagittal slope of the articular surfaces, very little rotation takes place at the four upper lumbar levels. More distally, at the lumbosacral level, the joint line has a more coronal plane, which makes rotational movements potentially possible, but these are limited by the iliolumbar ligaments.

How many degrees can the spine twist?

Only your thoracic spine (which consists of the 12 vertebrae in your upper and middle back) is designed to rotate significantly — about 40 degrees in each direction, according to Weingroff — when under compression. The lumbar spine (lower back) should rotate no more than about 12 degrees.

How do you know if your spine is rotating?

Shoulder blades that protrude more prominently. An uneven waist. A rib cage arch where one side of the rib cage protrudes more prominently than the other. Arms and legs that appear to hang at different lengths.

What muscles attach c2?


  • attached to the anterior surface of the vertebral body. longus colli.
  • attached to transverse processes. levator scapulae. scalenus medius. splenius cervicis.
  • attached to spinous processes. semispinalis cervicis. rectus capitis posterior major. …
  • attached to posterior surface of lamina. multifidus and longissimus.
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