How do loop diuretics cause osteoporosis?

Whether loop diuretics increases the bone turn-over by augmenting the urinary calcium excretion is more controversial as only few studies have been carried out on loop diuretics. However, in these studies the use of loop diuretics have been associated with decreased bone mineral density and increased risk of fractures.

Why do you lose calcium with loop diuretics?

Loop diuretics increase urinary calcium excretion by inhibiting the Na-K-2Cl co-transporter in the Loop of Henle of the kidney 3. Thus, chronic use of loop diuretics might result in higher rates of bone loss 4.

How do loop diuretics affect calcium?

Loop diuretics reduce the lumen-positive transepithelial voltage and consequently diminish paracellular transport of calcium and magnesium (12).

Does furosemide cause osteoporosis?

The chronic administration of furosemide is considered a risk factor for osteoporosis mainly due to the increased urinary excretion of calcium, leading to a long-term negative balance of calcium.

Does thiazide cause osteoporosis?

In this meta-analysis of cohort studies, we found that use of thiazide diuretics are not associated with significantly affected risk of osteoporotic fracture.

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Can loop diuretics decrease calcium in the body?

Loop diuretics inhibit the Na-K-2Cl transporter and also increase calcium excretion. They are often used in the treatment of hypercalcemia. Thiazide diuretics block the thiazide-sensitive NaCl transporter in the distal convoluted tubule, and can decrease calcium excretion.

What are the side effects of loop diuretics?

Common and shared side effects of the loop diuretics include dizziness, headache, gastrointestinal upset, hypernatremia, hypokalemia and dehydration.

What are loop diuretics used for?

Loop diuretics are medications used in the management and treatment of fluid overload conditions such as heart failure, nephrotic syndrome or cirrhosis, and hypertension, in addition to edema.

Can diuretics increase calcium levels?

Generally, by increasing sodium and water excretion, diuretics will cause a concomitant increase in calcium excretion. As they diminish blood volume and alter renal hemodynamics, diuretics enhance calcium reabsorption in the proximal tubule, modulating their usual effects on calcium excretion.

What are the two medications that may cause osteoporosis after long term use?

The medications most commonly associated with osteoporosis include phenytoin, phenobarbital, carbamazepine, and primidone. These antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are all potent inducers of CYP-450 isoenzymes.

Is fasting good for osteoporosis?

This has been found by the biochemical markers, indicating that fasting at certain hours of the day, especially during those hours of the day which are recommended as part of the Muslim tradition, is very effective in reducing the effects of osteoporosis.

Can osteoporosis cause eye problems?

Osteoporosis is associated with increased risk of developing dry eye syndrome, which can cause blurred vision and increase the risk of fall and fracture. The fact that both diseases are more prevalent in older populations means that any association between them could be of considerable importance to clinicians.

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Which diuretic is used in osteoporosis?

Thiazide diuretics lower while loop diuretics promote calcium excretion by the kidney. Several studies have found thiazide use to be associated with higher bone mineral density and some have found that thiazides reduce the risk of hip fracture.

How does hydrochlorothiazide help osteoporosis?

Introduction: Thiazide diuretics reduce urinary calcium excretion and therefore might prevent osteoporosis. Previously we reported a 2-year randomized controlled trial of hydrochlorothiazide treatment in 185 postmenopausal women that showed positive benefits of hydrochlorothiazide on bone density.

What are the side effects of HCTZ?

Hydrochlorothiazide side effects

  • blood pressure that’s lower than normal (especially when standing up after sitting or lying down)
  • dizziness.
  • headache.
  • weakness.
  • erectile dysfunction (trouble getting or keeping an erection)
  • tingling in your hands, legs, and feet.
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