What are three factors that contribute to osteoporosis?
Risk factors for osteoporosis
- inadequate amounts of dietary calcium.
- low vitamin D levels.
- cigarette smoking.
- alcohol intake of more than two standard drinks per day.
- caffeine intake of more than three cups of coffee or equivalent per day.
- lack of physical activity.
- early menopause (before the age of 45)
What contributes to low bone density and osteoporosis?
Having a family history of osteoporosis, being thin, being white or Asian, getting limited physical activity, smoking, and drinking excessive amounts of alcohol also increase the risk for low bone density and, eventually, osteoporosis.
What are 4 reasons for bone density loss?
The things that affect bone density include:
- Ageing. …
- Alcohol. …
- Breast cancer. …
- Calcium. …
- Corticosteroid therapy. …
- Eating disorders (including anorexia nervosa and bulimia) …
- Excessive exercise.
- Family history.
What are the two medications that may cause osteoporosis after long term use?
The medications most commonly associated with osteoporosis include phenytoin, phenobarbital, carbamazepine, and primidone. These antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are all potent inducers of CYP-450 isoenzymes.
What organs are affected by osteoporosis?
Osteoporotic bone breaks are most likely to occur in the hip, spine or wrist, but other bones can break too. In addition to causing permanent pain, osteoporosis causes some patients to lose height. When osteoporosis affects vertebrae, or the bones of the spine, it often leads to a stooped or hunched posture.
What are five risk factors for osteoporosis?
Factors that will increase the risk of developing osteoporosis are:
- Female gender, Caucasian or Asian race, thin and small body frames, and a family history of osteoporosis. …
- Cigarette smoking, excessive alcohol and caffeine consumption, lack of exercise, and a diet low in calcium.
- Poor nutrition and poor general health.
What hormone is responsible for osteoporosis?
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is an important contributor to the bone remodeling process. High levels of PTH can activate osteoclasts and cause excessive bone breakdown. Calcium in your blood triggers the release of PTH.
How can I increase my bone density after 60?
5 ways to build strong bones as you age
- Think calcium. Women up to age 50 and men up to age 70 need 1,000 milligrams daily; women over 50 and men over 70 should get 1,200 milligrams daily.
- And vitamin D. …
- Exercise. …
- Don’t smoke. …
- Drink alcohol moderately, if at all. …
- Remember protein. …
- Maintain an appropriate body weight.
What happens if you have low bone density?
A person may have low bone mass at any age but not develop osteoporosis. However, if a person has low bone mass and continues to lose bone density, this may lead to osteoporosis. A combination of low bone mass and a risk factor for fracture may increase your risk for broken bones, too.
Will osteoporosis shorten my life?
The residual life expectancy was 18.2 years for men beginning osteoporosis treatment at age 50 years and 7.5 years for men beginning treatment at age 75 years. The residual life expectancy was 26.4 years and 13.5 years for women who began treatment at ages 50 years and 75 years, respectively.
How much bone loss is normal for aging?
While there are differences among the rates of loss of mass from different bones, which vary from 2 to 13%/decade (summarized in Mazess, 1982), the rate of loss of cortical bone mass in both women and men is generally reported to be 3–5%/decade.
How much bone density loss is normal?
A T-score of -1.0 or above is normal bone density. Examples are 0.9, 0 and -0.9. A T-score between -1.0 and -2.5 means you have low bone density or osteopenia.