Septic arthritis involves bacterial infection of a synovial joint. Haematogenous bacterial spread is the most common cause of septic arthritis in children. Osteomyelitis of adjacent bones may also result in joint infection (Figure 2).
What causes septic hip in children?
Septic hips are also called septic arthritis and infectious arthritis. The organism usually responsible for the infection in infants and children is group B streptococcus, and another culprit may be Haemophilus influenza (Hib) if the child hasn’t had the vaccine for it.
What is the most common cause of septic arthritis?
The most common type of bacteria that causes septic arthritis is called Staphylococcus aureus. It is also known as S. aureus.
What is the most common cause of septic arthritis which joints are affected the most?
Knees are most commonly affected, but septic arthritis also can affect hips, shoulders and other joints. The infection can quickly and severely damage the cartilage and bone within the joint, so prompt treatment is crucial.
What is the definitive treatment of septic arthritis of the hip in a child?
Open arthrotomy drainage and thorough irrigation of the joint is considered the standard treatment for septic arthritis of the hip [2, 3].
What does a joint infection feel like?
Symptoms are usually severe and include fever, redness, and swelling at the joint and intense pain that worsens with movement. In infants, symptoms may include a fever, the inability to move the limb with the infected joint, and crying when the infected joint is moved.
What causes synovitis in kids?
Toxic synovitis (also known as transient synovitis) is a common cause of hip pain and limping in children. Doctors don’t know its exact cause, but some kids develop it after having a viral infection (such as a cold or diarrhea).
Can septic arthritis go away on its own?
Infectious arthritis caused by a virus usually goes away on its own with no specific treatment and fungal infections are treated with antifungal medication. Joint Drainage. Many people with infectious arthritis need to have their joint fluid drained.
How quickly does septic arthritis develop?
In most cases the symptoms develop within a few days. However, the symptoms can be slower to develop after joint replacement surgery or if you have tuberculosis. At first, the pain and fever may be mild but will gradually get worse.
Is septic arthritis an emergency?
Nongonococcal septic arthritis is a medical emergency that can lead to serious sequelae and mortality. Therefore, prompt recognition and treatment are critical to ensuring a good prognosis.
How can you tell the difference between gout and septic arthritis?
Unlike gout, septic arthritis occurs frequently in the knee: Infection in the knee occurs in 50% of cases. Other areas include the hip, shoulder, wrist, and ankle. In cases in which it is difficult to differentiate, septic arthritis should be ruled out through Gram stain and culture of the synovial fluid.
How do you rule out septic arthritis?
How Is Septic Arthritis Diagnosed? A procedure called arthrocentesis is commonly used to make an accurate diagnosis of septic arthritis. This procedure involves a surgical puncture of the joint to draw a sample of the joint fluid, known as synovial fluid. Normally, this fluid is sterile and acts as a lubricant.
What antibiotics are used for septic arthritis?
Vancomycin can be used for gram-positive cocci, ceftriaxone for gram-negative cocci, and ceftazidime for gram-negative rods. If the Gram stain is negative, but there is strong clinical suspicion for bacterial arthritis, treatment with vancomycin plus ceftazidime or an aminoglycoside is appropriate.