Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) refers to infection of one or more prosthetic heart valves [1-4]. The timing of the infection after surgical valve replacement reflects different pathogenic mechanisms that, in turn, influence the clinical presentation.
What causes prosthetic valve endocarditis?
Early PVE may be caused by a variety of pathogens, including S aureus and S epidermidis. These nosocomially acquired organisms are often methicillin-resistant (eg, MRSA). Late disease is most commonly caused by streptococci. Overall, CoNS are the most frequent cause of PVE (30%).
What does prosthetic heart valves mean?
An artificial heart valve is a one-way valve implanted into a person’s heart to replace a valve that is not functioning properly (valvular heart disease).
What is the most common cause of endocarditis?
Endocarditis begins when germs enter the bloodstream and then travel to the heart. Bacterial infection is the most common cause of endocarditis. Endocarditis can also be caused by fungi, such as Candida. In some cases, no cause can be found.
Which valve is most common for endocarditis?
The tricuspid valve is most commonly affected (50%), whereas involvement of the mitral and aortic valves is less common (20% each). The involvement of multiple valves is common. Pulmonary valve endocarditis is rare.
What is the treatment for infective endocarditis?
Many cases of endocarditis are successfully treated with antibiotics. Sometimes, surgery may be required to fix damaged heart valves and clean up any remaining signs of the infection.
What bacteria causes endocarditis?
Two kinds of bacteria cause most cases of bacterial endocarditis. These are staphylococci (staph) and streptococci (strep). You may be at increased risk for bacterial endocarditis if you have certain heart valve problems. This gives the bacteria an easier place to take hold and grow.
What is the life expectancy of someone with an artificial heart valve?
In people who have undergone surgery to replace the aortic valve before the age of 50, the loss in life expectancy was 4.4 years compared to the normal population. For aortic valve-replacement patients in general, this loss was 1.9 years.
How long do you live after heart valve replacement?
During a median 6.8 years (maximum 19 years) of follow-up, the observed, expected, and relative survivals were 21%, 34%, and 63%, respectively. The overall loss of life expectancy was 1.9 years, but was highest in those younger than 50 years of age (4.4 years).
How serious is a heart valve replacement?
The risk of dying from an aortic valve replacement is around 1 to 3%, although this risk is much smaller than that of leaving severe aortic valve problems untreated. Most people who survive surgery have a life expectancy close to normal. Read more about the risks of aortic valve replacement.
How did I get endocarditis?
Endocarditis is usually caused by an infection. Bacteria, fungi or other germs from another part of your body, such as your mouth, spread through your bloodstream and attach to damaged areas in your heart. If it’s not treated quickly, endocarditis can damage or destroy your heart valves.
What is the survival rate of endocarditis?
The observed long-term survival was 85% (95% confidence interval, 78% to 90%), 74% (95% confidence interval, 65% to 79%), 71% (95% confidence interval, 62% to 78%) after 1, 5, and 10 years, respectively.1 мая 2011 г.
How fast does endocarditis develop?
There are two forms of infective endocarditis, also known as IE: Acute IE — develops suddenly and may become life threatening within days. Subacute or chronic IE (or subacute bacterial endocarditis) — develops slowly over a period of weeks to several months.
When should you suspect endocarditis?
Endocarditis should be suspected in any patient with unexplained fevers, night sweats, or signs of systemic illness, particularly if any of the following risk factors are present1: a prosthetic heart valve, structural or congenital heart disease, intravenous drug use, and a recent history of invasive procedures (e.g., …15 мая 2012 г.
Can you recover from endocarditis?
With prompt diagnosis and proper medical treatment, over 90% of patients with bacterial endocarditis recover. Those whose endocarditis affects the right side of the heart usually have a better outlook than those with left-side involvement.
What is the most common complication of infective endocarditis?
Congestive heart failure due to aortic valve insufficiency is the most common intracardiac complication of subacute endocarditis. It develops after months of untreated disease but may occur a full year following microbiological cure.