The spinal cord is an extension of the central nervous system (CNS), which consists of the brain and spinal cord. The spinal cord begins at the bottom of the brain stem (at the area called the medulla oblongata) and ends in the lower back, as it tapers to form a cone called the conus medullaris.
What is spine and spinal cord?
Spine Structure and Function. Key parts of your spine include vertebrae (bones), disks, nerves and the spinal cord. The spine supports your body and helps you walk, twist and move. The disks that cushion vertebrae may compress with age or injury, leading to a herniated disk.
What are the parts of spinal cord?
The spinal cord is divided into four different regions: the cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral regions (Figure 3.1). The different cord regions can be visually distinguished from one another.
What are two functions of the spinal cord?
The spinal cord functions primarily in the transmission of nerve signals from the motor cortex to the body, and from the afferent fibers of the sensory neurons to the sensory cortex. It is also a center for coordinating many reflexes and contains reflex arcs that can independently control reflexes.
Where is spinal cord in our body?
Anatomically, the spinal cord runs from the top of the highest neck bone (the C1 vertebra) to approximately the level of the L1 vertebra, which is the highest bone of the lower back and is found just below the rib cage.
Who discovered the role of spinal cord for the first time?
The first reference to spinal cord injury is recorded in the Edwin Smith papyrus. Little was known of the function of the cord before Galen’s experiments conducted in the second century AD. Galen described the protective coverings of the spinal cord: the bone, posterior longitudinal ligament, dura mater, and pia mater.
What is the difference between spine and spinal cord?
The spine is made up of a column of bones called vertebrae (spinal column). The spinal cord, a long, fragile structure contained in the spinal canal which runs through the centre of the spine, is protected by the vertebrae.
What are the symptoms of spinal problems?
Symptoms of a Spinal Cord Disorder
- Weakness or paralysis of limbs.
- Loss of sensation.
- Changes in reflexes.
- Loss of urinary or bowel control.
- Uncontrolled muscle spasms.
- Back pain.
What are the three layers of the spinal cord?
Three layers of membranes known as meninges protect the brain and spinal cord. The delicate inner layer is the pia mater. The middle layer is the arachnoid, a web-like structure filled with fluid that cushions the brain. The tough outer layer is called the dura mater.
How many parts of the spine are there?
The spine is composed of 33 bones, called vertebrae, divided into five sections: the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine sections, and the sacrum and coccyx bones. The cervical section of the spine is made up of the top seven vertebrae in the spine, C1 to C7, and is connected to the base of the skull.