The three main mechanisms by which osteoporosis develops are an inadequate peak bone mass (the skeleton develops insufficient mass and strength during growth), excessive bone resorption, and inadequate formation of new bone during remodeling, likely due to mesenchymal stem cells biasing away from the osteoblast and …
What is the science behind osteoporosis?
Osteoporosis is a bone disease that develops when bone mineral density and bone mass decreases, or when the quality or structure of bone changes. This can lead to a decrease in bone strength that can increase the risk of fractures (broken bones).
What is the mechanism of osteoporosis when we age?
Age-related bone loss involves a gradual and progressive decline, which is also seen in men. Markedly increased bone resorption leads to the initial fall in bone mineral density. With increasing age, there is also a significant reduction in bone formation.
What causes osteoporosis pathophysiology?
The hallmark of osteoporosis is a reduction in skeletal mass caused by an imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation. Under physiologic conditions, bone formation and resorption are in a fair balance. A change in either—that is, increased bone resorption or decreased bone formation—may result in osteoporosis.
What organs are affected by osteoporosis?
Osteoporotic bone breaks are most likely to occur in the hip, spine or wrist, but other bones can break too. In addition to causing permanent pain, osteoporosis causes some patients to lose height. When osteoporosis affects vertebrae, or the bones of the spine, it often leads to a stooped or hunched posture.
What are five risk factors for osteoporosis?
Factors that will increase the risk of developing osteoporosis are:
- Female gender, Caucasian or Asian race, thin and small body frames, and a family history of osteoporosis. …
- Cigarette smoking, excessive alcohol and caffeine consumption, lack of exercise, and a diet low in calcium.
- Poor nutrition and poor general health.
Are there different types of osteoporosis?
Two categories of osteoporosis have been identified: primary and secondary. Primary osteoporosis is the most common form of the disease and includes postmenopausal osteoporosis (type I), and senile osteoporosis (type II). Secondary osteoporosis is characterized as having a clearly definable etiologic mechanism.
How do you investigate osteoporosis?
To diagnose osteoporosis and assess your risk of fracture and determine your need for treatment, your doctor will most likely order a bone density scan. This exam is used to measure bone mineral density (BMD). It is most commonly performed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA or DEXA) or bone densitometry.
Is osteoporosis normal with aging?
Is osteoporosis a normal part of aging? While it is typical to lose some bone mass as you age, it is not normal to have osteoporosis, to experience painful broken bones, or to lose more than 1-1/2 inches of height. Osteoporosis may be prevented and it is easily diagnosed and treated.
How does gender affect osteoporosis?
There are multiple reasons why women are more likely to get osteoporosis than men, including: Women tend to have smaller, thinner bones than men. Estrogen, a hormone in women that protects bones, decreases sharply when women reach menopause, which can cause bone loss.
What can be done to prevent osteoporosis?
Diet, vitamin D and weight-bearing exercise can help to prevent osteoporosis. If you have osteoporosis, medical treatment can prevent further bone loss and reduce your risk of bone fractures.
What are the two medications that may cause osteoporosis after long term use?
The medications most commonly associated with osteoporosis include phenytoin, phenobarbital, carbamazepine, and primidone. These antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are all potent inducers of CYP-450 isoenzymes.
What foods are bad for osteoporosis?
7 Foods to Avoid When You Have Osteoporosis
- Salt. …
- Caffeine. …
- Soda. …
- Red Meat. …
- Alcohol. …
- Wheat Bran. …
- Liver and Fish Liver Oil.