Nerve roots exiting from the lower end of the spinal cord continue as a structure called the cauda equina, or horse’s tail, to provide nerves to the lower trunk, legs, bowels, bladder and sexual organs.
What is the lower end of spinal cord?
The bottom of the spine is called the sacrum. It is made up of several vertebral bodies usually fused together as one. The remaining small bones or ossicles below the sacrum are also fused together and called the tailbone or coccyx.
Which term refers to the lower end of the spinal cord and nerve roots?
The most distal bulbous part of the spinal cord is called the conus medullaris, and its tapering end continues as the filum terminale. Distal to this end of the spinal cord is a collection of nerve roots, which are horsetail-like in appearance and hence called the cauda equina (Latin for horse’s tail).
What nerves are at the end of the spinal cord?
Cauda equina – The collection of nerves at the end of the spinal cord that resembles a horse’s tail.
Which nerve runs from the spinal cord in the lower back?
The spinal cord, which originates immediately below the brain stem, extends to the first lumbar vertebra (L1). Beyond L1 the spinal cord becomes the cauda equina (see below). The spinal cord provides a means of communication between the brain and peripheral nerves.
Nerve Structures of the Spine.
|SPINAL CORD||31 Pairs – Spinal Nerves|
What part of the spine controls the heart?
Thoracic (mid back) – the main function of the thoracic spine is to hold the rib cage and protect the heart and lungs. The twelve thoracic vertebrae are numbered T1 to T12.
Which spinal nerves affect which parts of the body?
The nerves of the cervical spine go to the upper chest and arms. The nerves in your thoracic spine go to your chest and abdomen. The nerves of the lumbar spine then reach to your legs, bowel, and bladder. These nerves coordinate and control all the body’s organs and parts, and let you control your muscles.
What nerves are affected by T1 and T2?
- T1 and T2 (top two thoracic nerves) feed into nerves that go into the top of the chest as well as into the arm and hand. …
- T3, T4, and T5 feed into the chest wall and aid in breathing.
- T6, T7, and T8 can feed into the chest and/or down into the abdomen.
How are the spinal nerves organized once they exit the cord?
The cord is segmentally organized. There are 31 segments, defined by 31 pairs of nerves exiting the cord. These nerves are divided into 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal nerve (Figure 3.2).
What part of the spinal cord represents an increase in cell body?
The cervical and lumbar regions of the spinal cord show a larger diameter compared to the rest of the regions. The cervical enlargement and lumbar enlargement represent an increased amount of neurons in the gray matter and axons in the white matter that serve the upper limbs and lower limbs, respectively.
What is the relationship between the spinal cord and the nerve roots?
The spinal cord gives off branches or paired nerve roots at each level of the spine, except the top cervical vertebrae. These roots leave the spine on both sides through spaces (neural foramina) between each vertebra.
What is the best treatment for spinal cord compression?
How is spinal cord compression treated?
- Medicines may include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that relieve pain and swelling, and steroid injections that reduce swelling.
- Physical therapy may include exercises to strengthen your back, abdominal, and leg muscles.
What part of the spine has no nerves?
Because the lumbar spine has no spinal cord and has a large amount of space for the nerve roots, even serious conditions—such as a large disc herniation—do not typically cause paraplegia (loss of motor function in the legs).